TGS - EXOSAT TGS L and R Orders
Spectra obtained using the EXOSAT transmission grating spectrometer, TGS.
There are two databases TGS and TGS2 as follows:
* TGS - the grating spectra averaged over the positive and negative orders
* TGS2 - the postive and negative orders kept separate
TGS provides a better overview of the spectrum, and is quicker to use with a
spectral fitting program. This is the default that most users will want to use.
Once a user has become more expert and wants to see, for example, if a subtle
feature is present in both halves of the grating spectra, the user can access
The insertion of a gold bar transmission grating behind the focussing mirrors
with a ruling of 1000 l/mm (LE1) or 500 l/mm (LE2) allowed the
study of bright soft X-ray sources with medium resolution over a large
dynamic range (LE1: 8-200 Angstrom with resolving power of 6 to 40 and
LE2: 8-400 Angstrom with a resolving power of 3 to 40. The focal plane
detector consisted of a microchannel plate (CMA) plus one of the five filters.
One of the CMAs failed on 28 October 1983, while the other proved
more resilient and lasted until the end of operations. The mechanism for
raising the grating on one of the telescopes failed on 15 September 1983
with the grating out of the telescope field of view. The other grating
was unfortunately on the telescope where the CMA detector had failed and
grating observations were no longer possible.
A total of 24 sources were observed with one or both transmission grating
spectrometers, from which 19 gave a useful spectrum. These spectra were
extracted from the CMA images. For some sources multiple spectra
were extracted based on one of several criteria:
* change in pointing position,
* change in filter,
* variability of the source (flaring),
* simultaneous GSPC or ME observations,
* level of signal-to-noise.
The final products database contains these spectra, corresponding background
spectra and response matrices as input files to the spectral fitting program
The products available for this database (spectra, lightcurves and
response matrices) were created originally at the EXOSAT observatory
in binary format. HEASARC converted all the products in FITS format.
A plot of the spectra and lightcurves is also available in GIF format.
The spectral image consists of the zero-order (which is almost identical to the
telescope PSF) plus the dispersed spectra (positive and negative orders), which
are aligned with the Y-axis. The spectra are extracted from the image by
putting a mask over the spectrum of typically 40 to 50 pixels width and
integrating perpendicular to the dispersion direction (along the X-axis). For
weak sources a smaller mask width was taken, optimized towards maximum
signal-to-noise and a reliable estimate of the flux normalization. The spectra
generated in this way consist of a one-dimensional array of 2048 channels.
The contribution of (instrumental) background was determined from integrating
over the same mask in the image of a long blank-field exposure. The
normalization of this background spectrum came from comparing the number of
counts in four boxes in the image. In addition the spectrum is corrected for
dead time and sum-signal of the CMA. In the spectra of hard X-ray sources the
zero order flux has a significant contribution to the (negative and positive)
first order flux. For each spectrum this zero order contribution was determined
and added to the background file.
For the TGS database the positive and negative orders were added, which
resulted in spectra of 1024 channels, with channel 1 containing photons
with the highest energy.
Name of the Associated Background Files
Name of the Associated Response Files
Name of the Associated Spectrum Files
Source Galactic Latitude
Accumulation interval for the lightcurve in seconds.
Comments Regarding Width of Mask Used to Extract Grating Spectra from LE Image
The parameters count_rate and count_rate_error contain the overall
ct/s and error for the source.
Count Rate Error
Creator (auto, aux)
The declination of the target.
Duration i.e. stop-start
The `exposure` is the total on-source observation time in seconds. This
includes all dead time effects, interruptions in coverage etc.
Background spectral file
Source spectral file
The number of the filter used (see the CMA database documentation).
The number of lines per mm for the grating. It is either 1000 or 500.
* `L1` - 1000 l/mm
* `L2` - 500 l/mm
Creation Time of This Entry
Source Galactic Longitude
The `name` parameter gives the target name. This name usually corresponds to
the target name as specified by the original observer. If a source has been
observed by different observers it may be entered under two or more names. It
is always recommended that any search by `name` be followed by a search on the
Number of time bins in the lightcurve.
Pointing Right Ascension
Creation Time of Data Files
Quality Flag (ME uses 0=unusable 5=perfect)
The RA of the target.
Roll Angle *10 degrees
Sequence Number of Observation
The `time` of the observation refers to the start time. This is listed as
yr.day, where yr is the last two digits of the year and day is the day of
the year, e.g., day 300 of 1984 is 84.300. All times are stored internally as
a short history file key (SHF) which is the number of seconds before or
after 1 January 1980 at 00:00 hrs UT. Times are accurate to the nearest
X pixel position of the zero order.
Y pixel position of the zero order.
Questions regarding the TGS database table can be addressed to the
HEASARC User Hotline.
If you have any problems, please consult the help
page or mail firstname.lastname@example.org